Source code for zipline.assets.assets

# Copyright 2016 Quantopian, Inc.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

from abc import ABCMeta
import array
import binascii
from collections import deque, namedtuple
from functools import partial
from numbers import Integral
from operator import itemgetter, attrgetter
import struct

from logbook import Logger
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
from pandas import isnull
from six import with_metaclass, string_types, viewkeys, iteritems
import sqlalchemy as sa
from toolz import (
    compose,
    concat,
    concatv,
    curry,
    groupby,
    merge,
    partition_all,
    sliding_window,
    valmap,
)

from zipline.errors import (
    EquitiesNotFound,
    FutureContractsNotFound,
    MultipleSymbolsFound,
    MultipleSymbolsFoundForFuzzySymbol,
    MultipleValuesFoundForField,
    MultipleValuesFoundForSid,
    NoValueForSid,
    ValueNotFoundForField,
    SameSymbolUsedAcrossCountries,
    SidsNotFound,
    SymbolNotFound,
)
from . import (
    Asset, Equity, Future,
)
from . continuous_futures import (
    ADJUSTMENT_STYLES,
    CHAIN_PREDICATES,
    ContinuousFuture,
    OrderedContracts,
)
from .asset_writer import (
    check_version_info,
    split_delimited_symbol,
    asset_db_table_names,
    symbol_columns,
    SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER,
)
from .asset_db_schema import (
    ASSET_DB_VERSION
)
from .exchange_info import ExchangeInfo
from zipline.utils.functional import invert
from zipline.utils.memoize import lazyval
from zipline.utils.numpy_utils import as_column
from zipline.utils.preprocess import preprocess
from zipline.utils.sqlite_utils import group_into_chunks, coerce_string_to_eng

log = Logger('assets.py')

# A set of fields that need to be converted to strings before building an
# Asset to avoid unicode fields
_asset_str_fields = frozenset({
    'symbol',
    'asset_name',
    'exchange',
})

# A set of fields that need to be converted to timestamps in UTC
_asset_timestamp_fields = frozenset({
    'start_date',
    'end_date',
    'first_traded',
    'notice_date',
    'expiration_date',
    'auto_close_date',
})

OwnershipPeriod = namedtuple('OwnershipPeriod', 'start end sid value')


def merge_ownership_periods(mappings):
    """
    Given a dict of mappings where the values are lists of
    OwnershipPeriod objects, returns a dict with the same structure with
    new OwnershipPeriod objects adjusted so that the periods have no
    gaps.

    Orders the periods chronologically, and pushes forward the end date
    of each period to match the start date of the following period. The
    end date of the last period pushed forward to the max Timestamp.
    """
    return valmap(
        lambda v: tuple(
            OwnershipPeriod(
                a.start,
                b.start,
                a.sid,
                a.value,
            ) for a, b in sliding_window(
                2,
                concatv(
                    sorted(v),
                    # concat with a fake ownership object to make the last
                    # end date be max timestamp
                    [OwnershipPeriod(
                        pd.Timestamp.max.tz_localize('utc'),
                        None,
                        None,
                        None,
                    )],
                ),
            )
        ),
        mappings,
    )


def _build_ownership_map_from_rows(rows, key_from_row, value_from_row):
    mappings = {}
    for row in rows:
        mappings.setdefault(
            key_from_row(row),
            [],
        ).append(
            OwnershipPeriod(
                pd.Timestamp(row.start_date, unit='ns', tz='utc'),
                pd.Timestamp(row.end_date, unit='ns', tz='utc'),
                row.sid,
                value_from_row(row),
            ),
        )

    return merge_ownership_periods(mappings)


def build_ownership_map(table, key_from_row, value_from_row):
    """
    Builds a dict mapping to lists of OwnershipPeriods, from a db table.
    """
    return _build_ownership_map_from_rows(
        sa.select(table.c).execute().fetchall(),
        key_from_row,
        value_from_row,
    )


def build_grouped_ownership_map(table,
                                key_from_row,
                                value_from_row,
                                group_key):
    """
    Builds a dict mapping group keys to maps of keys to to lists of
    OwnershipPeriods, from a db table.
    """
    grouped_rows = groupby(
        group_key,
        sa.select(table.c).execute().fetchall(),
    )
    return {
        key: _build_ownership_map_from_rows(
            rows,
            key_from_row,
            value_from_row,
        )
        for key, rows in grouped_rows.items()
    }


@curry
def _filter_kwargs(names, dict_):
    """Filter out kwargs from a dictionary.

    Parameters
    ----------
    names : set[str]
        The names to select from ``dict_``.
    dict_ : dict[str, any]
        The dictionary to select from.

    Returns
    -------
    kwargs : dict[str, any]
        ``dict_`` where the keys intersect with ``names`` and the values are
        not None.
    """
    return {k: v for k, v in dict_.items() if k in names and v is not None}


_filter_future_kwargs = _filter_kwargs(Future._kwargnames)
_filter_equity_kwargs = _filter_kwargs(Equity._kwargnames)


def _convert_asset_timestamp_fields(dict_):
    """
    Takes in a dict of Asset init args and converts dates to pd.Timestamps
    """
    for key in _asset_timestamp_fields & viewkeys(dict_):
        value = pd.Timestamp(dict_[key], tz='UTC')
        dict_[key] = None if isnull(value) else value
    return dict_


SID_TYPE_IDS = {
    # Asset would be 0,
    ContinuousFuture: 1,
}

CONTINUOUS_FUTURE_ROLL_STYLE_IDS = {
    'calendar': 0,
    'volume': 1,
}

CONTINUOUS_FUTURE_ADJUSTMENT_STYLE_IDS = {
    None: 0,
    'div': 1,
    'add': 2,
}


def _encode_continuous_future_sid(root_symbol,
                                  offset,
                                  roll_style,
                                  adjustment_style):
    s = struct.Struct("B 2B B B B 2B")
    # B - sid type
    # 2B - root symbol
    # B - offset (could be packed smaller since offsets of greater than 12 are
    #             probably unneeded.)
    # B - roll type
    # B - adjustment
    # 2B - empty space left for parameterized roll types

    # The root symbol currently supports 2 characters.  If 3 char root symbols
    # are needed, the size of the root symbol does not need to change, however
    # writing the string directly will need to change to a scheme of writing
    # the A-Z values in 5-bit chunks.
    a = array.array('B', [0] * s.size)
    rs = bytearray(root_symbol, 'ascii')
    values = (SID_TYPE_IDS[ContinuousFuture],
              rs[0],
              rs[1],
              offset,
              CONTINUOUS_FUTURE_ROLL_STYLE_IDS[roll_style],
              CONTINUOUS_FUTURE_ADJUSTMENT_STYLE_IDS[adjustment_style],
              0, 0)
    s.pack_into(a, 0, *values)
    return int(binascii.hexlify(a), 16)


Lifetimes = namedtuple('Lifetimes', 'sid start end')


[docs]class AssetFinder(object): """ An AssetFinder is an interface to a database of Asset metadata written by an ``AssetDBWriter``. This class provides methods for looking up assets by unique integer id or by symbol. For historical reasons, we refer to these unique ids as 'sids'. Parameters ---------- engine : str or SQLAlchemy.engine An engine with a connection to the asset database to use, or a string that can be parsed by SQLAlchemy as a URI. future_chain_predicates : dict A dict mapping future root symbol to a predicate function which accepts a contract as a parameter and returns whether or not the contract should be included in the chain. See Also -------- :class:`zipline.assets.AssetDBWriter` """ @preprocess(engine=coerce_string_to_eng(require_exists=True)) def __init__(self, engine, future_chain_predicates=CHAIN_PREDICATES): self.engine = engine metadata = sa.MetaData(bind=engine) metadata.reflect(only=asset_db_table_names) for table_name in asset_db_table_names: setattr(self, table_name, metadata.tables[table_name]) # Check the version info of the db for compatibility check_version_info(engine, self.version_info, ASSET_DB_VERSION) # Cache for lookup of assets by sid, the objects in the asset lookup # may be shared with the results from equity and future lookup caches. # # The top level cache exists to minimize lookups on the asset type # routing. # # The caches are read through, i.e. accessing an asset through # retrieve_asset will populate the cache on first retrieval. self._asset_cache = {} self._asset_type_cache = {} self._caches = (self._asset_cache, self._asset_type_cache) self._future_chain_predicates = future_chain_predicates \ if future_chain_predicates is not None else {} self._ordered_contracts = {} # Populated on first call to `lifetimes`. self._asset_lifetimes = {} @lazyval def exchange_info(self): es = sa.select(self.exchanges.c).execute().fetchall() return { name: ExchangeInfo(name, canonical_name, country_code) for name, canonical_name, country_code in es } @lazyval def symbol_ownership_map(self): out = {} for mappings in self.symbol_ownership_maps_by_country_code.values(): for key, ownership_periods in mappings.items(): out.setdefault(key, []).extend(ownership_periods) return out @lazyval def symbol_ownership_maps_by_country_code(self): sid_to_country_code = dict( sa.select(( self.equities.c.sid, self.exchanges.c.country_code, )).where( self.equities.c.exchange == self.exchanges.c.exchange ).execute().fetchall(), ) return build_grouped_ownership_map( table=self.equity_symbol_mappings, key_from_row=( lambda row: (row.company_symbol, row.share_class_symbol) ), value_from_row=lambda row: row.symbol, group_key=lambda row: sid_to_country_code[row.sid], ) @lazyval def country_codes(self): return tuple(self.symbol_ownership_maps_by_country_code) @staticmethod def _fuzzify_symbol_ownership_map(ownership_map): fuzzy_mappings = {} for (cs, scs), owners in iteritems(ownership_map): fuzzy_owners = fuzzy_mappings.setdefault( cs + scs, [], ) fuzzy_owners.extend(owners) fuzzy_owners.sort() return fuzzy_mappings @lazyval def fuzzy_symbol_ownership_map(self): return self._fuzzify_symbol_ownership_map(self.symbol_ownership_map) @lazyval def fuzzy_symbol_ownership_maps_by_country_code(self): return valmap( self._fuzzify_symbol_ownership_map, self.symbol_ownership_maps_by_country_code, ) @lazyval def equity_supplementary_map(self): return build_ownership_map( table=self.equity_supplementary_mappings, key_from_row=lambda row: (row.field, row.value), value_from_row=lambda row: row.value, ) @lazyval def equity_supplementary_map_by_sid(self): return build_ownership_map( table=self.equity_supplementary_mappings, key_from_row=lambda row: (row.field, row.sid), value_from_row=lambda row: row.value, )
[docs] def lookup_asset_types(self, sids): """ Retrieve asset types for a list of sids. Parameters ---------- sids : list[int] Returns ------- types : dict[sid -> str or None] Asset types for the provided sids. """ found = {} missing = set() for sid in sids: try: found[sid] = self._asset_type_cache[sid] except KeyError: missing.add(sid) if not missing: return found router_cols = self.asset_router.c for assets in group_into_chunks(missing): query = sa.select((router_cols.sid, router_cols.asset_type)).where( self.asset_router.c.sid.in_(map(int, assets)) ) for sid, type_ in query.execute().fetchall(): missing.remove(sid) found[sid] = self._asset_type_cache[sid] = type_ for sid in missing: found[sid] = self._asset_type_cache[sid] = None return found
[docs] def group_by_type(self, sids): """ Group a list of sids by asset type. Parameters ---------- sids : list[int] Returns ------- types : dict[str or None -> list[int]] A dict mapping unique asset types to lists of sids drawn from sids. If we fail to look up an asset, we assign it a key of None. """ return invert(self.lookup_asset_types(sids))
[docs] def retrieve_asset(self, sid, default_none=False): """ Retrieve the Asset for a given sid. """ try: asset = self._asset_cache[sid] if asset is None and not default_none: raise SidsNotFound(sids=[sid]) return asset except KeyError: return self.retrieve_all((sid,), default_none=default_none)[0]
[docs] def retrieve_all(self, sids, default_none=False): """ Retrieve all assets in `sids`. Parameters ---------- sids : iterable of int Assets to retrieve. default_none : bool If True, return None for failed lookups. If False, raise `SidsNotFound`. Returns ------- assets : list[Asset or None] A list of the same length as `sids` containing Assets (or Nones) corresponding to the requested sids. Raises ------ SidsNotFound When a requested sid is not found and default_none=False. """ sids = list(sids) hits, missing, failures = {}, set(), [] for sid in sids: try: asset = self._asset_cache[sid] if not default_none and asset is None: # Bail early if we've already cached that we don't know # about an asset. raise SidsNotFound(sids=[sid]) hits[sid] = asset except KeyError: missing.add(sid) # All requests were cache hits. Return requested sids in order. if not missing: return [hits[sid] for sid in sids] update_hits = hits.update # Look up cache misses by type. type_to_assets = self.group_by_type(missing) # Handle failures failures = {failure: None for failure in type_to_assets.pop(None, ())} update_hits(failures) self._asset_cache.update(failures) if failures and not default_none: raise SidsNotFound(sids=list(failures)) # We don't update the asset cache here because it should already be # updated by `self.retrieve_equities`. update_hits(self.retrieve_equities(type_to_assets.pop('equity', ()))) update_hits( self.retrieve_futures_contracts(type_to_assets.pop('future', ())) ) # We shouldn't know about any other asset types. if type_to_assets: raise AssertionError( "Found asset types: %s" % list(type_to_assets.keys()) ) return [hits[sid] for sid in sids]
[docs] def retrieve_equities(self, sids): """ Retrieve Equity objects for a list of sids. Users generally shouldn't need to this method (instead, they should prefer the more general/friendly `retrieve_assets`), but it has a documented interface and tests because it's used upstream. Parameters ---------- sids : iterable[int] Returns ------- equities : dict[int -> Equity] Raises ------ EquitiesNotFound When any requested asset isn't found. """ return self._retrieve_assets(sids, self.equities, Equity)
def _retrieve_equity(self, sid): return self.retrieve_equities((sid,))[sid]
[docs] def retrieve_futures_contracts(self, sids): """ Retrieve Future objects for an iterable of sids. Users generally shouldn't need to this method (instead, they should prefer the more general/friendly `retrieve_assets`), but it has a documented interface and tests because it's used upstream. Parameters ---------- sids : iterable[int] Returns ------- equities : dict[int -> Equity] Raises ------ EquitiesNotFound When any requested asset isn't found. """ return self._retrieve_assets(sids, self.futures_contracts, Future)
@staticmethod def _select_assets_by_sid(asset_tbl, sids): return sa.select([asset_tbl]).where( asset_tbl.c.sid.in_(map(int, sids)) ) @staticmethod def _select_asset_by_symbol(asset_tbl, symbol): return sa.select([asset_tbl]).where(asset_tbl.c.symbol == symbol) def _select_most_recent_symbols_chunk(self, sid_group): """Retrieve the most recent symbol for a set of sids. Parameters ---------- sid_group : iterable[int] The sids to lookup. The length of this sequence must be less than or equal to SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER because the sids will be passed in as sql bind params. Returns ------- sel : Selectable The sqlalchemy selectable that will query for the most recent symbol for each sid. Notes ----- This is implemented as an inner select of the columns of interest ordered by the end date of the (sid, symbol) mapping. We then group that inner select on the sid with no aggregations to select the last row per group which gives us the most recently active symbol for all of the sids. """ cols = self.equity_symbol_mappings.c # These are the columns we actually want. data_cols = (cols.sid,) + tuple(cols[name] for name in symbol_columns) # Also select the max of end_date so that all non-grouped fields take # on the value associated with the max end_date. The SQLite docs say # this: # # When the min() or max() aggregate functions are used in an aggregate # query, all bare columns in the result set take values from the input # row which also contains the minimum or maximum. Only the built-in # min() and max() functions work this way. # # See https://www.sqlite.org/lang_select.html#resultset, for more info. to_select = data_cols + (sa.func.max(cols.end_date),) return sa.select( to_select, ).where( cols.sid.in_(map(int, sid_group)) ).group_by( cols.sid, ) def _lookup_most_recent_symbols(self, sids): return { row.sid: {c: row[c] for c in symbol_columns} for row in concat( self.engine.execute( self._select_most_recent_symbols_chunk(sid_group), ).fetchall() for sid_group in partition_all( SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER, sids ) ) } def _retrieve_asset_dicts(self, sids, asset_tbl, querying_equities): if not sids: return if querying_equities: def mkdict(row, exchanges=self.exchange_info, symbols=self._lookup_most_recent_symbols(sids)): d = dict(row) d['exchange_info'] = exchanges[d.pop('exchange')] # we are not required to have a symbol for every asset, if # we don't have any symbols we will just use the empty string return merge(d, symbols.get(row['sid'], {})) else: def mkdict(row, exchanges=self.exchange_info): d = dict(row) d['exchange_info'] = exchanges[d.pop('exchange')] return d for assets in group_into_chunks(sids): # Load misses from the db. query = self._select_assets_by_sid(asset_tbl, assets) for row in query.execute().fetchall(): yield _convert_asset_timestamp_fields(mkdict(row)) def _retrieve_assets(self, sids, asset_tbl, asset_type): """ Internal function for loading assets from a table. This should be the only method of `AssetFinder` that writes Assets into self._asset_cache. Parameters --------- sids : iterable of int Asset ids to look up. asset_tbl : sqlalchemy.Table Table from which to query assets. asset_type : type Type of asset to be constructed. Returns ------- assets : dict[int -> Asset] Dict mapping requested sids to the retrieved assets. """ # Fastpath for empty request. if not sids: return {} cache = self._asset_cache hits = {} querying_equities = issubclass(asset_type, Equity) filter_kwargs = ( _filter_equity_kwargs if querying_equities else _filter_future_kwargs ) rows = self._retrieve_asset_dicts(sids, asset_tbl, querying_equities) for row in rows: sid = row['sid'] asset = asset_type(**filter_kwargs(row)) hits[sid] = cache[sid] = asset # If we get here, it means something in our code thought that a # particular sid was an equity/future and called this function with a # concrete type, but we couldn't actually resolve the asset. This is # an error in our code, not a user-input error. misses = tuple(set(sids) - viewkeys(hits)) if misses: if querying_equities: raise EquitiesNotFound(sids=misses) else: raise FutureContractsNotFound(sids=misses) return hits def _lookup_symbol_strict(self, ownership_map, multi_country, symbol, as_of_date): """ Resolve a symbol to an asset object without fuzzy matching. Parameters ---------- ownership_map : dict[(str, str), list[OwnershipPeriod]] The mapping from split symbols to ownership periods. multi_country : bool Does this mapping span multiple countries? symbol : str The symbol to look up. as_of_date : datetime or None If multiple assets have held this sid, which day should the resolution be checked against? If this value is None and multiple sids have held the ticker, then a MultipleSymbolsFound error will be raised. Returns ------- asset : Asset The asset that held the given symbol. Raises ------ SymbolNotFound Raised when the symbol or symbol as_of_date pair do not map to any assets. MultipleSymbolsFound Raised when multiple assets held the symbol. This happens if multiple assets held the symbol at disjoint times and ``as_of_date`` is None, or if multiple assets held the symbol at the same time and``multi_country`` is True. Notes ----- The resolution algorithm is as follows: - Split the symbol into the company and share class component. - Do a dictionary lookup of the ``(company_symbol, share_class_symbol)`` in the provided ownership map. - If there is no entry in the dictionary, we don't know about this symbol so raise a ``SymbolNotFound`` error. - If ``as_of_date`` is None: - If more there is more than one owner, raise ``MultipleSymbolsFound`` - Otherwise, because the list mapped to a symbol cannot be empty, return the single asset. - Iterate through all of the owners: - If the ``as_of_date`` is between the start and end of the ownership period: - If multi_country is False, return the found asset. - Otherwise, put the asset in a list. - At the end of the loop, if there are no candidate assets, raise a ``SymbolNotFound``. - If there is exactly one candidate, return it. - Othewise, raise ``MultipleSymbolsFound`` because the ticker is not unique across countries. """ # split the symbol into the components, if there are no # company/share class parts then share_class_symbol will be empty company_symbol, share_class_symbol = split_delimited_symbol(symbol) try: owners = ownership_map[company_symbol, share_class_symbol] assert owners, 'empty owners list for %r' % symbol except KeyError: # no equity has ever held this symbol raise SymbolNotFound(symbol=symbol) if not as_of_date: # exactly one equity has ever held this symbol, we may resolve # without the date if len(owners) == 1: return self.retrieve_asset(owners[0].sid) options = {self.retrieve_asset(owner.sid) for owner in owners} if multi_country: country_codes = map(attrgetter('country_code'), options) if len(set(country_codes)) > 1: raise SameSymbolUsedAcrossCountries( symbol=symbol, options=dict(zip(country_codes, options)) ) # more than one equity has held this ticker, this # is ambiguous without the date raise MultipleSymbolsFound(symbol=symbol, options=options) options = [] country_codes = [] for start, end, sid, _ in owners: if start <= as_of_date < end: # find the equity that owned it on the given asof date asset = self.retrieve_asset(sid) # if this asset owned the symbol on this asof date and we are # only searching one country, return that asset if not multi_country: return asset else: options.append(asset) country_codes.append(asset.country_code) if not options: # no equity held the ticker on the given asof date raise SymbolNotFound(symbol=symbol) # if there is one valid option given the asof date, return that option if len(options) == 1: return options[0] # if there's more than one option given the asof date, a country code # must be passed to resolve the symbol to an asset raise SameSymbolUsedAcrossCountries( symbol=symbol, options=dict(zip(country_codes, options)) ) def _lookup_symbol_fuzzy(self, ownership_map, multi_country, symbol, as_of_date): symbol = symbol.upper() company_symbol, share_class_symbol = split_delimited_symbol(symbol) try: owners = ownership_map[company_symbol + share_class_symbol] assert owners, 'empty owners list for %r' % symbol except KeyError: # no equity has ever held a symbol matching the fuzzy symbol raise SymbolNotFound(symbol=symbol) if not as_of_date: if len(owners) == 1: # only one valid match return self.retrieve_asset(owners[0].sid) options = [] for _, _, sid, sym in owners: if sym == symbol: # there are multiple options, look for exact matches options.append(self.retrieve_asset(sid)) if len(options) == 1: # there was only one exact match return options[0] # there is more than one exact match for this fuzzy symbol raise MultipleSymbolsFoundForFuzzySymbol( symbol=symbol, options=self.retrieve_all(owner.sid for owner in owners), ) options = {} for start, end, sid, sym in owners: if start <= as_of_date < end: # see which fuzzy symbols were owned on the asof date. options[sid] = sym if not options: # no equity owned the fuzzy symbol on the date requested raise SymbolNotFound(symbol=symbol) sid_keys = list(options.keys()) # If there was only one owner, or there is a fuzzy and non-fuzzy which # map to the same sid, return it. if len(options) == 1: return self.retrieve_asset(sid_keys[0]) exact_options = [] for sid, sym in options.items(): # Possible to have a scenario where multiple fuzzy matches have the # same date. Want to find the one where symbol and share class # match. if ((company_symbol, share_class_symbol) == split_delimited_symbol(sym)): asset = self.retrieve_asset(sid) if not multi_country: return asset else: exact_options.append(asset) if len(exact_options) == 1: return exact_options[0] # multiple equities held tickers matching the fuzzy ticker but # there are no exact matches raise MultipleSymbolsFoundForFuzzySymbol( symbol=symbol, options=self.retrieve_all(owner.sid for owner in owners), ) def _choose_fuzzy_symbol_ownership_map(self, country_code): if country_code is None: return self.fuzzy_symbol_ownership_map return self.fuzzy_symbol_ownership_maps_by_country_code.get( country_code, ) def _choose_symbol_ownership_map(self, country_code): if country_code is None: return self.symbol_ownership_map return self.symbol_ownership_maps_by_country_code.get(country_code)
[docs] def lookup_symbol(self, symbol, as_of_date, fuzzy=False, country_code=None): """Lookup an equity by symbol. Parameters ---------- symbol : str The ticker symbol to resolve. as_of_date : datetime or None Look up the last owner of this symbol as of this datetime. If ``as_of_date`` is None, then this can only resolve the equity if exactly one equity has ever owned the ticker. fuzzy : bool, optional Should fuzzy symbol matching be used? Fuzzy symbol matching attempts to resolve differences in representations for shareclasses. For example, some people may represent the ``A`` shareclass of ``BRK`` as ``BRK.A``, where others could write ``BRK_A``. country_code : str or None, optional The country to limit searches to. If not provided, the search will span all countries which increases the likelihood of an ambiguous lookup. Returns ------- equity : Equity The equity that held ``symbol`` on the given ``as_of_date``, or the only equity to hold ``symbol`` if ``as_of_date`` is None. Raises ------ SymbolNotFound Raised when no equity has ever held the given symbol. MultipleSymbolsFound Raised when no ``as_of_date`` is given and more than one equity has held ``symbol``. This is also raised when ``fuzzy=True`` and there are multiple candidates for the given ``symbol`` on the ``as_of_date``. Also raised when no ``country_code`` is given and the symbol is ambiguous across multiple countries. """ if symbol is None: raise TypeError("Cannot lookup asset for symbol of None for " "as of date %s." % as_of_date) if fuzzy: f = self._lookup_symbol_fuzzy mapping = self._choose_fuzzy_symbol_ownership_map(country_code) else: f = self._lookup_symbol_strict mapping = self._choose_symbol_ownership_map(country_code) if mapping is None: raise SymbolNotFound(symbol=symbol) return f( mapping, country_code is None, symbol, as_of_date, )
[docs] def lookup_symbols(self, symbols, as_of_date, fuzzy=False, country_code=None): """ Lookup a list of equities by symbol. Equivalent to:: [finder.lookup_symbol(s, as_of, fuzzy) for s in symbols] but potentially faster because repeated lookups are memoized. Parameters ---------- symbols : sequence[str] Sequence of ticker symbols to resolve. as_of_date : pd.Timestamp Forwarded to ``lookup_symbol``. fuzzy : bool, optional Forwarded to ``lookup_symbol``. country_code : str or None, optional The country to limit searches to. If not provided, the search will span all countries which increases the likelihood of an ambiguous lookup. Returns ------- equities : list[Equity] """ if not symbols: return [] multi_country = country_code is None if fuzzy: f = self._lookup_symbol_fuzzy mapping = self._choose_fuzzy_symbol_ownership_map(country_code) else: f = self._lookup_symbol_strict mapping = self._choose_symbol_ownership_map(country_code) if mapping is None: raise SymbolNotFound(symbol=symbols[0]) memo = {} out = [] append_output = out.append for sym in symbols: if sym in memo: append_output(memo[sym]) else: equity = memo[sym] = f( mapping, multi_country, sym, as_of_date, ) append_output(equity) return out
[docs] def lookup_future_symbol(self, symbol): """Lookup a future contract by symbol. Parameters ---------- symbol : str The symbol of the desired contract. Returns ------- future : Future The future contract referenced by ``symbol``. Raises ------ SymbolNotFound Raised when no contract named 'symbol' is found. """ data = self._select_asset_by_symbol(self.futures_contracts, symbol)\ .execute().fetchone() # If no data found, raise an exception if not data: raise SymbolNotFound(symbol=symbol) return self.retrieve_asset(data['sid'])
def lookup_by_supplementary_field(self, field_name, value, as_of_date): try: owners = self.equity_supplementary_map[ field_name, value, ] assert owners, 'empty owners list for %r' % (field_name, value) except KeyError: # no equity has ever held this value raise ValueNotFoundForField(field=field_name, value=value) if not as_of_date: if len(owners) > 1: # more than one equity has held this value, this is ambigious # without the date raise MultipleValuesFoundForField( field=field_name, value=value, options=set(map( compose(self.retrieve_asset, attrgetter('sid')), owners, )), ) # exactly one equity has ever held this value, we may resolve # without the date return self.retrieve_asset(owners[0].sid) for start, end, sid, _ in owners: if start <= as_of_date < end: # find the equity that owned it on the given asof date return self.retrieve_asset(sid) # no equity held the value on the given asof date raise ValueNotFoundForField(field=field_name, value=value)
[docs] def get_supplementary_field(self, sid, field_name, as_of_date): """Get the value of a supplementary field for an asset. Parameters ---------- sid : int The sid of the asset to query. field_name : str Name of the supplementary field. as_of_date : pd.Timestamp, None The last known value on this date is returned. If None, a value is returned only if we've only ever had one value for this sid. If None and we've had multiple values, MultipleValuesFoundForSid is raised. Raises ------ NoValueForSid If we have no values for this asset, or no values was known on this as_of_date. MultipleValuesFoundForSid If we have had multiple values for this asset over time, and None was passed for as_of_date. """ try: periods = self.equity_supplementary_map_by_sid[ field_name, sid, ] assert periods, 'empty periods list for %r' % (field_name, sid) except KeyError: raise NoValueForSid(field=field_name, sid=sid) if not as_of_date: if len(periods) > 1: # This equity has held more than one value, this is ambigious # without the date raise MultipleValuesFoundForSid( field=field_name, sid=sid, options={p.value for p in periods}, ) # this equity has only ever held this value, we may resolve # without the date return periods[0].value for start, end, _, value in periods: if start <= as_of_date < end: return value # Could not find a value for this sid on the as_of_date. raise NoValueForSid(field=field_name, sid=sid)
def _get_contract_sids(self, root_symbol): fc_cols = self.futures_contracts.c return [r.sid for r in list(sa.select((fc_cols.sid,)).where( (fc_cols.root_symbol == root_symbol) & (fc_cols.start_date != pd.NaT.value)).order_by( fc_cols.sid).execute().fetchall())] def _get_root_symbol_exchange(self, root_symbol): fc_cols = self.futures_root_symbols.c fields = (fc_cols.exchange,) exchange = sa.select(fields).where( fc_cols.root_symbol == root_symbol).execute().scalar() if exchange is not None: return exchange else: raise SymbolNotFound(symbol=root_symbol) def get_ordered_contracts(self, root_symbol): try: return self._ordered_contracts[root_symbol] except KeyError: contract_sids = self._get_contract_sids(root_symbol) contracts = deque(self.retrieve_all(contract_sids)) chain_predicate = self._future_chain_predicates.get(root_symbol, None) oc = OrderedContracts(root_symbol, contracts, chain_predicate) self._ordered_contracts[root_symbol] = oc return oc def create_continuous_future(self, root_symbol, offset, roll_style, adjustment): if adjustment not in ADJUSTMENT_STYLES: raise ValueError( 'Invalid adjustment style {!r}. Allowed adjustment styles are ' '{}.'.format(adjustment, list(ADJUSTMENT_STYLES)) ) oc = self.get_ordered_contracts(root_symbol) exchange = self._get_root_symbol_exchange(root_symbol) sid = _encode_continuous_future_sid(root_symbol, offset, roll_style, None) mul_sid = _encode_continuous_future_sid(root_symbol, offset, roll_style, 'div') add_sid = _encode_continuous_future_sid(root_symbol, offset, roll_style, 'add') cf_template = partial( ContinuousFuture, root_symbol=root_symbol, offset=offset, roll_style=roll_style, start_date=oc.start_date, end_date=oc.end_date, exchange_info=self.exchange_info[exchange], ) cf = cf_template(sid=sid) mul_cf = cf_template(sid=mul_sid, adjustment='mul') add_cf = cf_template(sid=add_sid, adjustment='add') self._asset_cache[cf.sid] = cf self._asset_cache[mul_cf.sid] = mul_cf self._asset_cache[add_cf.sid] = add_cf return {None: cf, 'mul': mul_cf, 'add': add_cf}[adjustment] def _make_sids(tblattr): def _(self): return tuple(map( itemgetter('sid'), sa.select(( getattr(self, tblattr).c.sid, )).execute().fetchall(), )) return _ sids = property( _make_sids('asset_router'), doc='All the sids in the asset finder.', ) equities_sids = property( _make_sids('equities'), doc='All of the sids for equities in the asset finder.', ) futures_sids = property( _make_sids('futures_contracts'), doc='All of the sids for futures consracts in the asset finder.', ) del _make_sids def _lookup_generic_scalar(self, obj, as_of_date, country_code, matches, missing): """ Convert asset_convertible to an asset. On success, append to matches. On failure, append to missing. """ result = self._lookup_generic_scalar_helper( obj, as_of_date, country_code, ) if result is not None: matches.append(result) else: missing.append(obj) def _lookup_generic_scalar_helper(self, obj, as_of_date, country_code): if isinstance(obj, (Asset, ContinuousFuture)): return obj if isinstance(obj, Integral): try: return self.retrieve_asset(int(obj)) except SidsNotFound: return None if isinstance(obj, string_types): # Try to look up as an equity first. try: return self.lookup_symbol( symbol=obj, as_of_date=as_of_date, country_code=country_code ) except SymbolNotFound: # Fall back to lookup as a Future try: # TODO: Support country_code for future_symbols? return self.lookup_future_symbol(obj) except SymbolNotFound: return None raise NotAssetConvertible("Input was %s, not AssetConvertible." % obj)
[docs] def lookup_generic(self, obj, as_of_date, country_code): """ Convert an object into an Asset or sequence of Assets. This method exists primarily as a convenience for implementing user-facing APIs that can handle multiple kinds of input. It should not be used for internal code where we already know the expected types of our inputs. Parameters ---------- obj : int, str, Asset, ContinuousFuture, or iterable The object to be converted into one or more Assets. Integers are interpreted as sids. Strings are interpreted as tickers. Assets and ContinuousFutures are returned unchanged. as_of_date : pd.Timestamp or None Timestamp to use to disambiguate ticker lookups. Has the same semantics as in `lookup_symbol`. country_code : str or None ISO-3166 country code to use to disambiguate ticker lookups. Has the same semantics as in `lookup_symbol`. Returns ------- matches, missing : tuple ``matches`` is the result of the conversion. ``missing`` is a list containing any values that couldn't be resolved. If ``obj`` is not an iterable, ``missing`` will be an empty list. """ matches = [] missing = [] # Interpret input as scalar. if isinstance(obj, (AssetConvertible, ContinuousFuture)): self._lookup_generic_scalar( obj=obj, as_of_date=as_of_date, country_code=country_code, matches=matches, missing=missing, ) try: return matches[0], missing except IndexError: if hasattr(obj, '__int__'): raise SidsNotFound(sids=[obj]) else: raise SymbolNotFound(symbol=obj) # Interpret input as iterable. try: iterator = iter(obj) except TypeError: raise NotAssetConvertible( "Input was not a AssetConvertible " "or iterable of AssetConvertible." ) for obj in iterator: self._lookup_generic_scalar( obj=obj, as_of_date=as_of_date, country_code=country_code, matches=matches, missing=missing, ) return matches, missing
def _compute_asset_lifetimes(self, country_codes): """ Compute and cache a recarray of asset lifetimes. """ sids = starts = ends = [] equities_cols = self.equities.c if country_codes: results = sa.select(( equities_cols.sid, equities_cols.start_date, equities_cols.end_date, )).where( (self.exchanges.c.exchange == equities_cols.exchange) & (self.exchanges.c.country_code.in_(country_codes)) ).execute().fetchall() if results: sids, starts, ends = zip(*results) sid = np.array(sids, dtype='i8') start = np.array(starts, dtype='f8') end = np.array(ends, dtype='f8') start[np.isnan(start)] = 0 # convert missing starts to 0 end[np.isnan(end)] = np.iinfo(int).max # convert missing end to INTMAX return Lifetimes(sid, start.astype('i8'), end.astype('i8'))
[docs] def lifetimes(self, dates, include_start_date, country_codes): """ Compute a DataFrame representing asset lifetimes for the specified date range. Parameters ---------- dates : pd.DatetimeIndex The dates for which to compute lifetimes. include_start_date : bool Whether or not to count the asset as alive on its start_date. This is useful in a backtesting context where `lifetimes` is being used to signify "do I have data for this asset as of the morning of this date?" For many financial metrics, (e.g. daily close), data isn't available for an asset until the end of the asset's first day. country_codes : iterable[str] The country codes to get lifetimes for. Returns ------- lifetimes : pd.DataFrame A frame of dtype bool with `dates` as index and an Int64Index of assets as columns. The value at `lifetimes.loc[date, asset]` will be True iff `asset` existed on `date`. If `include_start_date` is False, then lifetimes.loc[date, asset] will be false when date == asset.start_date. See Also -------- numpy.putmask zipline.pipeline.engine.SimplePipelineEngine._compute_root_mask """ if isinstance(country_codes, string_types): raise TypeError( "Got string {!r} instead of an iterable of strings in " "AssetFinder.lifetimes.".format(country_codes), ) # normalize to a cache-key so that we can memoize results. country_codes = frozenset(country_codes) lifetimes = self._asset_lifetimes.get(country_codes) if lifetimes is None: self._asset_lifetimes[country_codes] = lifetimes = ( self._compute_asset_lifetimes(country_codes) ) raw_dates = as_column(dates.asi8) if include_start_date: mask = lifetimes.start <= raw_dates else: mask = lifetimes.start < raw_dates mask &= (raw_dates <= lifetimes.end) return pd.DataFrame(mask, index=dates, columns=lifetimes.sid)
[docs] def equities_sids_for_country_code(self, country_code): """Return all of the sids for a given country. Parameters ---------- country_code : str An ISO 3166 alpha-2 country code. Returns ------- tuple[int] The sids whose exchanges are in this country. """ sids = self._compute_asset_lifetimes([country_code]).sid return tuple(sids.tolist())
[docs]class AssetConvertible(with_metaclass(ABCMeta)): """ ABC for types that are convertible to integer-representations of Assets. Includes Asset, six.string_types, and Integral """ pass
AssetConvertible.register(Integral) AssetConvertible.register(Asset) # Use six.string_types for Python2/3 compatibility for _type in string_types: AssetConvertible.register(_type) class NotAssetConvertible(ValueError): pass class PricingDataAssociable(with_metaclass(ABCMeta)): """ ABC for types that can be associated with pricing data. Includes Asset, Future, ContinuousFuture """ pass PricingDataAssociable.register(Asset) PricingDataAssociable.register(Future) PricingDataAssociable.register(ContinuousFuture) def was_active(reference_date_value, asset): """ Whether or not `asset` was active at the time corresponding to `reference_date_value`. Parameters ---------- reference_date_value : int Date, represented as nanoseconds since EPOCH, for which we want to know if `asset` was alive. This is generally the result of accessing the `value` attribute of a pandas Timestamp. asset : Asset The asset object to check. Returns ------- was_active : bool Whether or not the `asset` existed at the specified time. """ return ( asset.start_date.value <= reference_date_value <= asset.end_date.value ) def only_active_assets(reference_date_value, assets): """ Filter an iterable of Asset objects down to just assets that were alive at the time corresponding to `reference_date_value`. Parameters ---------- reference_date_value : int Date, represented as nanoseconds since EPOCH, for which we want to know if `asset` was alive. This is generally the result of accessing the `value` attribute of a pandas Timestamp. assets : iterable[Asset] The assets to filter. Returns ------- active_assets : list List of the active assets from `assets` on the requested date. """ return [a for a in assets if was_active(reference_date_value, a)]